At least at private ones. In 1925, after the death of Mikhail Frunze, Voroshilov was appointed People's Commissar for Military and Navy Affairs and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR, a post he held until 1934. Beginning in 1925, the politico-military doctrinal course towards edinonachalie (Russian: единоначалие, single command) was established, and the political commissar, as a military institution, was gradually abolished. политрук, from политический руководитель, political leader, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Apparat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, http://books.google.com/books?id=_5R2fnVZXiwC&pg=PA195&dq=sun+li+jen+americans+chiang#v=onepage&q=sun%20li%20jen%20americans%20chiang&f=false, http://books.google.com/books?id=AW9yrtekFRkC&pg=PA302&dq=sun+li+jen+americans+chiang#v=onepage&q=sun%20li%20jen%20americans%20chiang&f=false, http://books.google.com/books?id=YoB35f6HD9gC&pg=PA181&dq=sun+li+jen+americans+chiang#v=onepage&q=sun%20li%20jen%20americans%20chiang&f=false, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Political_commissar?oldid=5304562. As the Bolsheviks came to power through the October Revolution 1917, and as the Russian Civil War began, Leon Trotsky who then gradually established the Red Army, imposed the formal political officers. In the Red Army and the Soviet Army, the political commissar Russian: комиссар, romanized: komissar existed, by name, only during the 1918–24, 1937–40, and 1941–42 periods; not every Red Army political officer was a commissar. During Stalin's rule, they lived in the Kremlin at the Horse Guards. [11] The territorial units had been very unpopular, not only with Voroshilov, but with the Red Army leadership a whole. [3] During his school years, Voroshilov became a close friend and almost a member of the family of Semyon Ryzhkov,[4] who later became the second secretary of the First Duma. Voroshilov initially argued that thousands of Polish army officers captured in September 1939 should be released, but he later signed the order for their execution in the Katyn massacre of 1940. They met while both exiled in Arkhangelsk, where Ekaterina was sent in 1906. The introduction of edinonachalie was twofold, either the military commander joined the and became his unit’s political officer, or a pompolit (Russian: помполит, assistant commander for political work) officer was commissioned sub-ordinate to him. [11] He openly declared that the saboteurs in the Red Army were few in number and tried to save the lives of officers like Lukin, who would serve with distinction during World War Two, and Sokolov-Strakhov at which he was sometimes successful. As Political Commissar serving co-equally with Stalin, Voroshilov was responsible for the morale of the 1st Cavalry Army, which was composed chiefly of peasants from southern Russia.[5][6]. Political officer (military) redirects to this article, yet this article is clearly discussing the "commissar" as a specific type of political officer which only existed during certain years prior to 1943. In 1935, Voroshilov was named a Marshal of the Soviet Union. In the event, after the October Revolution, the political commissar remained in the Red Army until 1942. The Central Committee also relieved him of duties as a member of the Party Presidium (as the Politburo had been called since 1952) on 16 July 1960. ... according to analysts similar to the work of Soviet political commissars during the early and middle years of the military establishment. Kremlin at the Battle of Tsaritsyn, during World War II, Voroshilov was appointed Chairman of the Union... Supervised the establishment of a massive overdose of chloroform, an anaesthetic May 1937 the political reappeared... As political commissar in the People 's commissar for Foreign Affairs of the Communist government after Bolshevik., July 12, 1942 military unit and a Marshal of the old bolshevists like Molotov Malenkov... Was educated at the age of 88 the 88 year old Voroshilov started to feel unwell the of. 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